Components of computer and their functions

Components of computer and their functions

Components of computer and their functions.

The computer contains different function-performing components before it really called a computer. In today’s article, we will discuss with you all components of a computer system and their functions.

For instance, man has eye functions as an organ of sight, an ear for hearing, a mouth for feeding, etc.. those are a few components of a complete human being. If you are interested to know each component of a computer and its functions, then here you are in the right place.

In a computer system, there are software components, hardware components, input components, output components, etc. In this article, we will list and explain all the components of computers and their respective functions one by one.

The main component and heart of any computer system is its central processing unit, the CPU. Without a CPU, a computer cannot function. It is in the CPU that the arithmetic logic process takes place.

However, according to a definition of a computer, it is an electronic device that accepts, process, store, give out the result, data or information, etc. The functions of the computer system cannot be overemphasized, hence, computer engineers and other reputable scholars claimed that there are five major basic components of a computer also referred to as units. Furthermore, a computer that lacks any one of the five components is not yet a complete computer.

Now, let’s start looking at the various main parts or components of a computer and their functions one by one.

Main components of a computer and their explanation

  1. Input Unit.
  2. Output Unit.
  3. Memory Unit.
  4. Control Unit.
  5. Arithmetical and Logical Unit.

1. Input Unit

Any computer needs to be given data or information through its input unit, hence, it will only respond when a command is given. These commands can be given using the input unit or the input devices such as a microphone, mouse, keyboard, etc. 

For example, when using a keyboard, we can type things on a Notepad and the computer processes the entered data and then displays the output of the same screen.

The data entered can be in the form of numbers, alphabet, images, videos, sounds, etc. We enter the information using an input device, the processing units convert it into computer-understandable languages and then the final output is received by a human-understandable language.

In conclusion, the input unit is one of the basic components of a computer and its functions include getting information from the operator through their input device.

Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, cameras, joysticks, and microphones etc.

Read this also: computer maintenance tools and equipment.

2. Storage Unit

Another main major component of a computer among the list and explanation of computer components and their functions is the storage unit. The computer’s storage unit helps us when we enter the data into the computer using an input device, the entered information immediately gets saved in the memory unit of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Because of the presence of some existing programming, the Memory Unit then transmits the data further to the other parts of the CPU.

Similarly, when the output of our command is processed by the computer, it is saved in the memory unit before giving the output to us. Storage or memory unit of a computer also helps in storing our files such as images, videos, in fact, all our documents inside a computer.

Examples of computer storage devices include floppy diskette, hard drive, magnetic strip, SuperDisk, tape cassette, zip diskette, etc.

3. Control Unit

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Control Unit is the core of any computer device. It comprises three major components of the computer; memory Unit, Control Unit, and arithmetic and Logical Unit.

All these three units are elements of the CPU and together help in the efficient working and processing of data. It is also known as the “Brain of Computer”, hence, no action can be conducted by a device without the execution and permission of the Central Processing Unit.

CPUs and GPUs.

4. Output Unit

Output unit of a computer function when we command a computer to perform a task, it reverts to the action performed and gives us a result. This result is called output. There are various output devices connected to the computer. The most basic of which is a monitor (screen). Whatever we write using a keyboard or click using a mouse is all displayed on the monitor.

For example, when you visit a computer center to print out something from your email inbox, you enter your details like username and password, and then the final slip that the printer will release is your outcome. In this case, the printer acts as an output unit.

Some notable examples of output components of a computer system are:

1. Monitor.

2. Printer.

3. Headphones.

3. Computer Speakers.

4. Projector.

5. GPS.

6. Sound Card.

7. Video Card, etc.

5. Arithmetic and Logic Unit

All the mathematical calculations or arithmetic operations are performed in the Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) of the CPU of a computer. 

It can also perform actions like a comparison of data and decision-making actions. The ALU comprises circuits using which addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and other numerical-based calculations can be performed.

An ALU performs basic arithmetic and logic operations. Examples of arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Examples of logic operations are comparisons of values such as NOT, AND, and OR.


Here is just the list and explanation of the top five basic computer components or units. Please let’s know anywhere that is confusing you via the comment section or our contact form.

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